During live export, frightened animals are forced onto crowded lorries or ships and transported for days or even weeks to foreign abattoirs.
When they reach these facilities, they're often killed in gruesome ways that would be illegal in their home country.
Back in 2016, Ireland struck a live-export deal with Turkey – and as a result, an estimated 30,000 cows were forced to make the long, harrowing journey from Ireland to Turkey in 2017, sometimes in temperatures of up to 41.5 degrees. In 2018, almost 13,000 cows made the same voyage, and as EU live exports are expected to stabilise in 2019, this number could increase next year. Exhaustion, dehydration, and death are common during these trips.